for Transsexual People (M2F)
This section will
discuss some of the surgical procedures commonly undertaken by those
who are diagnosed as "transsexuals." Some of these procedures
were adapted from similar surgeries performed on intersexed individuals.
means "Sex Reassignment Sugery," which is the more widely
accepted terminology for the so-called "Sex Change Operation"
in the United States. Some people prefer to call it "Sex Reconstructive
Surgery," especially if it is being done on an intersexed patient.
means "Gender Reassignment Surgery," which is the more commonly
used terminology for so-called "Sex Change Operations" outside
the United States. Some people prefer to say it stands for "Genital
Reconstructive Surgery" instead. Another new term for this has
also surfaced: Gender Confirmation Surgery, but is not yet in wide usage.
Either term is acceptable
correctable differences which will make a dramatic difference in the
perceived gender can often be identified to the benefit of a male-to-female
transsexual. Collectively these are referred to as "Facial Feminization
Surgery" (FFS), which is currently the most widely used terminology.
However, some transsexual people prefer to call these procedures "Facial
Sex Reassignment Surgery" (FSRS) instead, as a way to indicate
the level of importance for many Male-to-Female transsexual people in
their social presentation as going far beyond mere "feminization."
Others point out that when a woman has a nose job, or work done on her
cheeks or jawline, or even an eyebrow or face lift (essentially many
of these same procedures) it is never referred to as "feminization
surgery," but is, instead, simply called "cosmetic surgery."
Which makes sense given that these procedures are usually performed
by cosmetic or reconstructive surgeons. Whatever you choose to call
these procedures, they may be subdivided into the following:
Forehead recontouring involves rounding the forehead to approximate
a female shape, often by shaving bone from the brow of filling in
flat areas to round them out. Reducing brow ridges, if excessive,
can considerably improve the feminine appearance.
reduction: involves advancing forward the scalp between
1.0 cm and 2.5 cm to correct for the receding masculine pattern
hairline and to approximate, when possible, a more feminine 'oval'
(deep plane) rhytidectomy: involves lifting the cheeks,
jowls, jawline, and neck and their underlying muscles.
contouring: involves shaving the brow bossing and, if necessary,
contouring via shaving across the forehead.
augmentation: involves the use of 2, 3, or 4 implants (Gore-Tex
Subcutaneous Augmentation Material).
The nose is the most prominent feature of the face. Many transsexual
women find a "nose job" makes one of the most remarkable
improvements in their female facial appearance. It is the most common
procedure after breast augmentation.
or rhinoplasty alters the appearance of the nose by shaping and repositioning
the nasal bones and trimming the bone and cartilage as needed to create
the desired appearance.
Surgery - The strip of cartilage which separates the two
sides of the nose is called the septum. It is sometimes bent and
interferes with breathing; if so, it may need to be straightened.
If it is too long, it is often shortened.
the Profile - Many women complain of a hump on the bridge
(dorsum) of the nose. This is usually made of both bone and cartilage.
It is removed with scissors or a saw. When the nose is flat, the
profile may be augmented with grafts of bone or cartilage.
the Tip - If the tip of the nose is large or boxy, much
of the tip cartilage may be removed or reshaped to refine the shape.
the Nasal Bones - If the bridge of the nose is wide, the
surgeon will narrow it by fracturing the bone on each side and moving
it closer to the centre.
Nostril Flare - If the nostrils are flared, they may be
reduced by removing a small wedge of tissue from the base of the
Cheek implants, also called submalar implants, can make the face look
less flat, which can enhance its feminine appearance. Like any implant,
there is a danger of rejection.
reduction: involves an intra-oral incision which requires
an extended recovery period (with severe facial swelling/bruising
for about 10 days).
augmentation: involves an intra-oral incision to augmenting
the bone with a hard silicone implant.
contouring: involves lifting the upper lip via a shallow
'v' incision below the nose or by an incision inside the lip. If
necessary, the lower lip can be made fuller via an incision inside
The chin is an extremely important area in gender recognition. Although
the potential benefits can be great, the difficulties involved in
re-shaping a "robust" lower jaw sufficiently to make a significant
improvement in overall facial feminization prevents this being a very
reduction: involves a 1.0cm extra-oral incision under the
jaw line to cut the bone (on average, by 1.0cm depth) and thus reduce
the sharp angle of the back corner of the jaw where it rises up
to the ear.
an intra-oral incision can shave (but not cut) the bone. Although
this technique prevents external scaring, it is less effective,
has more risk of infections, and requires an extended recovery period
due to severe facial swelling/bruising.
reduction: involves an intra-oral incision to shorten and
narrow the chin (if necessary, including contouring with a hard
silicone implant). The technique involves: (1) shaving the bone;
(2) cutting the bone; or (3) sectioning out the mid-section of chin
and joining the upper and lower sections via steel screws.
genioplasty: involves an intra-oral incision and sliding
forward or backward the lower section of chin (if necessary, including
contouring with a hard silicone implant).
augmentation: involves an intra-oral incision to advance
a short or/and receding chin with a hard silicone implant.
A trachea shave is a common procedure undertaken in order to reduce
the woman's "Adams's Apple" to more normal female proportions.
Many women DO have something of an "Adam's Apple," but women
rarely have a pronounced one, as many men do. This procedure only
removes the tissue that causes the "lump" on the throat,
it does absolutely NOTHING to change the pitch of a person's voice!
Costs for these
procedures vary wildly from a couple thousand dollars to hundreds of
thousands of dollars depending on the surgeon and how much surgical
alteration is required or desired. "Name" surgeons usually
charge more, but if they know what they are doing it may be worth the
extra cost and wait to see them. These procedures often involve more
"reconstructive" type work with the facial bones that is beyond
the technical skills of many cosmetic surgeons who do little more than
face-lifts or nose jobs. If you are contemplating FFS, you may wish
to read the well documented surgical experiences of Sally,
(in Belgium) with before and after photos.
K. Ousterhout, MD, DDS - Better known as "Dr. O"
(sounds like a James Bond character doesn't he?). He is probably
the best known and best regarded FFS surgeon providing complete cosmetic
services. He has written a very
good article on the subject reprinted on Dr.
Becky's website. Contact info: 45 Castro Street, Suite 150, San
Francisco, California 94114. Phone: (415) 626-2888. emal: email@example.com
Hoeyberghs, Wellness Kliniek, Grotestraat 42, 3600 GENK,
Belgium Phone: 0032 89 32 95 00. - performs tracheal shaves.
M.F. Noorman van der Dussen Contact info: Monica vzw, Campus Eeuwfeestkliniek,
Harmoniestraat 68, 2018 Antwerpen, Belgium. Phone: 00-32-(0)3-237
61 05 or London Centre for Aesthetic Surgery, 15 Harley Street, London
W1N 1DA, United Kingdom. Phone: 0044-20-7636-4272. - provides complete
Pierre Brassard, Montreal Canada - performs tracheal shaves
Yvon Menard, Montreal, Canada - performs rhinoplasty and tracheal
Abitbol, Paris, France E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- performs tracheal shaves.
Gress, Dublin, Ireland (no contact info) - performs Brow
lifts, Face lifts, and Liposuction.
A.G. Becking, VU medisch centrum, De Boelelaan 1117, Postbus 7057,
1007 MB, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Phone: 00-31-(0)20 - 444 1150. -
performs three kinds of forehead contouring.
Lucas Ziekenhuis, K.N.O.-heelkunde, Jan Tooropstraat 164, 1061 AE,
Amsterdam, Netherlands. Phone: 020 5108894 - performs tracheal shaves.
(Dr.) Mahieu, Academish Ziekenhuis Vrije Universiteit, Department
of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, P.O.Box 7057, 1007MB Amsterdam,
Netherlands. Phone: 0031-20-4443687. - performs tracheal shaves.
Chettawut Tulayaphanich, 1529/4 Onnut 31 Sukumvit 77 Rd. Bangkok
10250, Thailand. Phone: (662)742-0845 E-mail: email@example.com
Kunaporn, Phuket Plastic Surgery Center, 20/44 Mae Luan Road,
Phuket 83000, Thailand. Phone : +66 76 221631. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Eyebrow lift, Lower Blepharoplasty, SMAS/Platysma Rhytidectomy,
Pichet Rodcharoen MD., FRCS (T) Head, Division of Plastic surgery
School of Medicine, Rangsit University, 519 Suthisan Rd., Huaikwang
District Bangkok 10310
Thailand. Phone: +662-690-8080. E-mail: email@example.com
- performs full FFS services.
Preecha Tiewtranon, M.D., 33 Sukhumvit 3 (Soi Nana Nua), Wattana,
Bangkok 10110, Thailand. Phone: +662 641-5120/5121/5122 - provides
complete FFS services.
Watamusakul, MD, Thailand Phone: +66 9 8051057 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- provides complete FFS services.
Cheesman FRCS, Royal National Throat, Nose & Ear Hospital,
Grays Inn Road,
London WC1X 8DA, United Kingdom. Phone: 020 7915 1434 - performs tracheal
Murty, Central Leicestershire,United Kingdom, Phone: 0116
238 8140. - performs tracheal shaves.
Musgrove, Maxillofacial Unit, FRCS [NHS], Manchester Royal
Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL United Kingdom. Phone:
0161-2768639 E-mail: email@example.com.
- Performs bilateral osteotomy, Forehead Contouring, Jaw Reduction
(internal incision), mandibular flaring reduction, Otoplasty, Rhinoplasty,
Scalp advancement, Sliding Genioplasty.
R. Meltzer, M.D. Portland, Oregon and Scottsdale, Arizona USA.
Performs Cheek implants, Eyebrow lift, Face Lift, Forehead Contouring,
Jaw Reduction (internal incision), Lip augmentation, Lip lift, Lower
Blepharoplasty, Thyroid Cartilage Reduction, Upper Blepharoplasty.
Alter, Los Angeles, California.
Some studies have
indicated that 50-60% of all transsexual women do not achieve satisfactory
breast growth by hormone therapy alone. A Dutch study
found that two-thirds of the transsexual women they surveyed had
undergone breast augmentation more than once trying to achieve the desired
feminine body contours.
often have special needs or desires concerning breast augmentation that
are not addressed by mainstream cosmetic surgeons, and those that do
often charge excessively for their expertise in dealing with transsexual
technically known as "augmentation mammoplasty," is a surgical
procedure to enhance the size and shape of a woman's breast by inserting
an implant behind each breast. The usual goal of breast augmentation
is to achieve the most beautiful and natural looking breasts possible
- although a natural look is not always desired by some women. To create
an aesthetic and symmetrically balanced breast using implants to enhance
them is not an easy task.
For best results
in a transsexual woman, augmentation should not be undertaken before
maximum breast development from hormone use has been achieved, the more
breast tissue available the better. Rushing into breast augmentation
at the start of a transition and hormone treatment is probably a considerable
mistake. Breast implants that have only skin coverage are likely to
appear artificially round, with the edges of the implant plainly showing.
As a rule of thumb, if the breast size is still unsatisfactory after
two years of hormone therapy then augmentation may become appropriate.
is a very well established and straightforward procedure that is capable
of producing excellent results - its certainly no secret that many top
models and actresses have had breast augmentation! In some instances
excessively large implants or rather poor quality surgery make augmentation
obvious. But for many girls, with the right choice and size of implant
and good quality surgery, an augmented breast can appear totally natural
- indistinguishable from a normal breast in or out of clothing.
Every woman has
a different body shape which should influence the contours of the
enhanced breast. Different breasts and body contours will determine
the size and style of the implant and in some cases the location of
the incision as well.
- Aside from the size issue, a beautiful breast has several components.
First, it is desirable to have a gentle slope that extends from just
below the clavicle to the peak of the breast at the nipple position.
A bulge in that region is a telltale sign of an implant and a "scooped-out"
area probably means the breasts are too saggy. A smooth, gentle line
should be present.
Position - Second, the nipple position should be in the region
of the centre of the breast mound. The nipple should tilt slightly
outward and upward. Then the line of the breast should dip in a gentle
arc from the nipple to the breast fold.
Width - Breast width is an especially important dimension,
because it determines how much cleavage there is between the breasts.
Breast width also determines the outside curve of the breasts, which
helps balance the hips and narrow the waist.
- Cleavage is always desirable, and when the breast is viewed from
the front in silhouette or from the back, there should be a gentle
suggestion of fullness in the midline and laterally.
Once all these components are considered, the overall breast size
becomes the final factor. The optimum breast size is determined by
measuring and studying the woman's body shape and bone structure.
A good surgeon will ask the woman to pick pictures or photographs
of breasts that she feels are desirable.
that increase the liklihood people will suspect they are implants:
- Thinner woman
with with thinner fat layer
- Smaller pre-operative
- Larger implant
implants (increases degree of "traction ripppling")
- Saline rather
than silicone gel fill
- Inadequate volume
of saline inside saline implant
that decrease the liklihood people will suspect they are implants:
- Heavier patients
with thicker fat layer
- Larger pre-operative
- Smaller implant
- Silicone rather
than saline fill
- Optimum volume
of saline inside
The procedure for
breast augmentation is done differently by individual surgeons. In general
they follow the following process:
- The patient
and surgeon agree on the desired size, shape and look of the augmented
- The type (smooth
or textured), shape (round or anatomical) and size (measured in cc
of volume) of implant is selected. The implant may contain saline,
silicone gel, or some other filler.
- The incision
site is determined; this can be nipple (areolar), armpit (transaxillary),
under the breast (inframammary) or navel (transumbilical).
- The site of implant
placement is decided; this can be above the muscle (subglandular)
or below the muscle (submuscular).
There are significant
risks to undergoing breast augmentation, not just from the surgery itself
but from the type of material from which the implant is made and how
it may interfere with future detection of breast cancer. For a more
complete, in-depth article on breast augmentation please visit Annie
Richard's web site (from which I hope she doesn't mind I copied
some of this information).
Again, the cost
for this procedure varies from a couple thousand dollars to as much
as a cosmetic surgeon can get away with charging someone. Definitely
a procedure that requires the patient shop around a bit and DEFINITELY
check out the educational background and experience of the surgeon and
demand references from satisfied clients who have undergone the same
offering breast augmentation:
Literally too numerous
to list here. Virtually every cosmetic surgeon performs breast augmentations,
but relatively few - it seems - have experience dealing with transsexual
Orchiectomy / Orchidectomy (i.e., Castration)
(called "Orchidectomy" in British English) means the removal
of both testes, i.e. "castration." It is a serious alternative
to antiandrogen hormone therapy for androgen suppression in preoperative
transsexual women, and is now widely regarded as a useful precursor
to SRS in many cases. However, many SRS surgeons prefer to do this themselves
as part of the reassignment operation, and charge for it whether they
have to do it or not under the assumption it may not have been done
the way they wanted and they'll spend time "fixing another surgeon's
Because the testes
are conveniently located external to the body cavity, they are relatively
easy to remove and an Orchiectomy is considered to be a quite minor
operation. Usually a small incision is made in the scrotum, the sac
that contains the testicles. The testicles are detached from blood vessels
and the vas deferens (the tube that carries sperm to the prostate before
ejaculation), and the sac is sewn back up. Orchiectomy can be performed
as an outpatient procedure under local anaesthesia, or under general
anaesthesia with an overnight stay in hospital.
effects of an Orchiectomy:
- Diminished libido
- Erectile dysfunction
(inability to achieve or maintain an erection adequate for intercourse)
- Hot flashes similar
to those experienced by women during menopause. They are characterised
by a sudden spread of warmth to the face, neck, and upper torso, usually
followed by profuse sweating. Their effects may be controlled with
oestrogen and other HRT.
- Weight gain of
10 to 15 pounds (4 to 7kg) is a common occurrence.
- Mood swings are
- Depression may
- Fatigue, a feeling
of extreme tiredness that may not be alleviated by rest or sleep.
This is caused by decreased testosterone production and anemia, a
deficiency of red blood cells in the bloodstream.
- Loss of muscle
mass with decreased strength or weakness.
for a Transsexual woman:
- after Orchiectomy the patient is endocrinologically identical to
a post-operative SRS patient. Thus allowing hormone therapy dosages
to be lowered. This has clear safety advantages especially in patients
thought to be at elevated risk of thromboembolic events (i.e."blood
- the HBIGDA Standards of Care do not cover Orchiectomy. There is
no requirement for a person to live "in role" for any time
period prior to undergoing a "Orchie." There are many surgeons
who will also perform the operation without a psychological consultation.
There are no requirements for "letters of recommendation"
for the procedure.
feminization - without the activity of testicular produced
androgens, estrogen activity throughout the body is unopposed, resulting
in faster, more pronounced femininzation.
of effect - when a transsexual person stops taking hormone
therapy medications, they can see a "reversal" of the effects
of that therapy. Once a transsexual woman has undergone an Orchiectomy,
they will not suffer any reversal effects if they should have to cease
hormone therapy for some reason.
benefits - It is claimed that a bilateral Orchidectomy protects
against coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and effectively
increases the life span by an average of 5 years.
benefits - transsexual women are usually very pleased with
the reduction in "maleness" in their genital area after
an Orchiectomy. This can produce a significant improvement in emotional
to an Orchiectomy:
- no surgical procedure is without risk.
atrophy - the tissue is needed for SRS. If there is a long
period of time between the Orchiectomy and SRS it may have shrunk
too much to provide enough tissue for the SRS surgeon. However prolonged
use of hormones alone can also cause scrotal and penile atrophy. Stretching
exercises can be applied to limit this effect somewhat.
The following are
disadvantages to the transsexual woman who is unsure of transition and
wants to keep open the option of reverting to a male existence:
infertility - Orchidectomy will cause a complete and irreversible
loss of sperm production, with permanent sterility. Male sex drive
and sexual function can in principle be restored by administration
of testosterone. Note: If the patient has been on hormone therapy
for any length of time they have more than likely already been rendered
permenantly sterile anyway.
A Bilateral Orchidectomy
in the USA is available for as little as $1200 when done under local
anaesthesia as a day case, going up to about $5000 with general anaesthesia
and an overnight stay in hospital. Orchidectomy surgery is also very
cost-effective in comparison with long term androgen suppression treatment,
whose costs can easily amount to $1000 or more a year, depending on
the drugs being taken.
who perform Orchiectomies:
are MANY MANY doctors who will perform this procedure. It's mostly
a matter of asking around. One doctor who makes something of a business
of it for the Transgender Community is Dr.
Felix Spector of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States.
There are several
"do-it-yourself methods for Orchiectomy. The following methods
are intended ONLY for use on farm animals, but there are Emergency Room
reports of people using these on themselves:
- The burdizo
is a clamp like device (available at a veterinary or farm supply stores)
which fits over the scrotum and when activated snaps together crushing
the cords within the scrotum with little damage to the outside. After
a few weeks the testes dry up. The technique is virtually blood free,
but excruciating pain for a short time.
are elastic bands placed around the scrotum and just left there until
it falls off, three to four weeks. The bands are very tight and have
to be applied with a special tool.
these methods are EXTREMELY dangerous! DIY Orchiectomy is foolish and
potentially deadly. It is strongly recommended that nobody attempt this
at home on themselves or others.
Surgery on Transsexual People
There is some argument
over whether or not surgery is "medically necessary" or not.
The Harry Benjamin Internationl
Gender Dysphoria Association states in it's "Standards of Care"
for the treatment of transsexuals that, ". . . .Sex reassignment
is not 'experimental,' 'investigational,' 'elective,' 'cosmetic,' or
optional in any meaningful sense. It constitutes very effective and
appropriate treatment for transsexualism or profound GID."
In other words the HBIGDA party line is that such surgery IS "medically
most diagnosed transsexuals do not undergo surgical reassignment. And
most insurance companies and National Health programs consider it an
"elective, cosmetic" procedure because it can provide only
the APPEARANCE of external genitalia without any of the reproductive
functionality. Many transsexual people also insist that they do not
need to undergo surgical reassignment to feel "complete" in
their preferred gender role.
transsexual people may not wish to undergo SRS procedures include:
- A medical problem
which prevents major surgery.
- A homosexual
- Lack of money
- Fear of the surgery.
- Uncertainty as
to the strength of one’s transsexuality and a desire to be able
to turn back.
- Pressure from
a partner, family or friends.
- Potential loss
of earnings after surgery. particlularly if working as a "she-male"
sex worker or "female impersonator/Drag performer."
transsexual people may decide to undergo SRS procedures:
- A need to match
the bodies physical sex with a female psychological gender.
- To present a
female physical appearance even when nude, and remove fears of visual
detection as a "man".
- To enable heterosexual
relations with men.
- A strong and
sexually exciting desire to have female genitals.
- To remove the
masculinizing physical effects and/or urges caused by the testes.
- Concern about
long term liver damage due to prolonged use of anti-androgens and
high estrogen and progesterone doses.
- Comfort, avoidance
of testicular discomfort when wearing tight under-wear/swimwear.
- Pressure from
a partner, family or friends.
- As a prerequisite
to obtaining proper legal identification in the preferred gender.
listed reasons mostly pertain to Male-to-Female transsexual people,
though some of them also pertain to Female-to-Male gender patients as
more than one kind of SRS procedure available:
SRS - involves surgical removal of the testes and penis for
the construction of, what externally appears to be female genitalia.
There is no emphasis placed on vaginal depth, as the external appearance
is considered more important. Labiaplasty usually is performed in
a followup operation several months after the initial surgery. This
is usually done following the "Penile Inversion" technique.
- referred to as "Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty" (which
is NOT abbreviated "PIV" because that already stands for
"Progestin Induced Virilization," which is an intersex condistion).
Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty involves the removal of the testes and
penis and formation of female appearing external genitalia, and the
formation of a neo-vagina with adequate depth for intercourse. Often
be followed several months later by a labiaplasty, although some surgeons
will perform labiaplasty concurrent with the rest of the operation
it is not considered wise because of the increased risk of reducing
blood flow that may result in necrosis (tissue death). To better insure
result, labiaplasty is usually delayed until a patient has fully healed
from the first operation.
Colon Vaginoplasty - This operation was adapted from a procedure
performed on intersexed and underdeveloped girls who were born without
vaginas. It is not recommended as a primary SRS operation and is usually
reserved for patients that could not achieve adequate vaginal depth
via Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty. There are much greater risks to
undergoing this surgery because the abdominal cavity is entered and
the patient must concurrently heal from TWO major operations at the
same time. Basically how it differs from Penile Inversion techniques
is that a section of the colon is used to construct the neo-vagina.
There are some advantages, beyond achievable depth, to this procedure
however. The section of colon is "naturally distensible"
and does not require the stretching and dilating exercises necessary
with Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty. The section of colon also has
its own blood supply and is naturally self-lubricating via the production
of mucous. Though some patients who have undergone the Sigmoid Vaginoplasty
report an over-production of mucous that requires they wear a pad
all the time. The American Educational Gender Information Service,
Inc. (AEGIS) has issued a safety
bulletin concerning this procedure.
SRS - There is also at least one transsexual woman who has
undergone a modified SRS in order to keep her testicles (albeit internally).
More information on this procedure is available on Anne
Lawrence's web site.
Costs for SRS procedures
vary widely from a few thousand dollars to upwards of $20,000 - even
up to $100,000 for F2M Phalloplasty! Generally SRS overseas is less
expensive than within the United States. However, one must also factor
in travel expenditures if seeking SRS overseas. Doctors in Asia tend
to be less concerned with checking for "letters of recommendation"
from a psychotherapist. Psychotherapy is not prevelent in most of Asia,
which does not follow the HBIGDA Standards of Care, so it is a popular
destination for those who seek SRS outside of the established medical
guidelines in the West. Others go simply because it is less expensive
and they get to turn their recovery into a tropical "vacation"
or sorts. Those seeking surgery overseas should be aware that many government
agencies in the United States will require a notorized letter from their
surgeon in order to change legal documents (such as a US Passport or
birth certificate). This can be problematic if one undergoes surgery
in a country without a notary system. Those seeing foreign doctors should
check with various State and Federal agencies ahead of time to find
out what documentation they require or deem acceptable.
both Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty and Sigmoid Colon Vaginoplasty:
in New Zealand (performs a modified ascending colon technique)
Sanguan Kunaporn in Phuket, Thailand
Preecha Tiewtranon and Dr.Prakob Thongphiew in Bangkok, Thailand
Tulayaphanich also in Bangkok, Thailand
Suporn Watanyusakul in Chonburi, Thailand
Haertsch in Epping, New South Wales, Australia (no web site)
Phone no. +61 2 9868-5155, FAX +61 2 9868-5360 PO Box 441, Epping
NSW Australia 2121
Gary Alter, Los Angeles, California, USA
doctors appear to perform only the Penile Inversion technique:
Menard and Pierre Brassard
in Montreal, Canada.
Marci Bowers in
Trinidad, Colorado. 328 Bonaventure St, Suite 5, Trinidad, CO, 81082.
Phone: 719-846-4433. (note: Dr. Bowers took over the SRS practice
of Dr. Stanley Biber).
Micheal Brownstein of San Francisco, California, USA
M. Fenton in Leeds, UK (no website) Phone: +0148 453 3131
at Huddersfield Nuffield. Methley Park Hosp, Methley lane, Methley,
Leeds LS26 9HG 0197 751 8518
Toby Meltzer in Portland, Orecgon and Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
Royle in East Sussex, UK (no website) The Hove Nuffield Hospital,
55 New Church Road, Hove, East Sussex BN3 4BG England
TELELPHONE: 0127 3720217, FAX : 0127 322 0919
Seghers of Brussels, Belgium (no website). Avenue de Broqueville
60 1200 Brussels, Belgium Office: +32-2/ 770.01.08 Fax: +32-2/ 770.01.08
Department in hospital: +32-2/ 739.84.05
Terry in Central Leicestershire, UK (no website) Phone no.
+0116 265 2665
Schrang or Neenah, Wisconsin, USA